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Water Education

On this page you will find important information about water. 
Protect yourself and your family from the harmful contaminates that lurk in unfiltered water! 
We proudly stand with Multipure's vision to improve the world, one glass of water at a time, one person at a time.

What can I do?
Together we can greatly impact our communities and our world.  These are steps we all can take to improve the quality of our water,  improve our vital ecosystems, and strengthen our communities.
  • Buy a water filter!
  • Carry a refillable water container rather than buying bottled water.
  • Tell your local officials to put the repair of water infrastructure at the top of their agenda.
  • Be mindful of your own water usage.
  • Support water legislation.
  • Buy local and eat organic as much as possible!  Industrial agriculture is one of the leading causes of environmental pollution, water pollution, and the demise of the honey bee.  So support your local farmers!
  • Write your congressman and demand that your state adopts bottle bills that includes bottled water.
  • Shorten your shower by a minute or two and you'll save up to 150 gallons of water each month!
  • Take a stand against Flouride in water, a known carcinogen that is discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories, which has no scientific support for positive effects on teeth but has been proven to lower IQ.
  • There is no such thing as an "acceptable level of exposure" to a known toxic substance.  Just because you didn't die instantly does not mean it is not harmful to your health!
"About one third of the bottled waters we tested contained significant contamination (i.e., levels of chemical or bacterial contaminants exceeding those allowed under a state or industry standard or guideline) in at least one test. This is the most comprehensive independent testing of bottled water in the United States that is publicly available."
National Resources Defense Council
"...swelling demand and changing climate patterns are draining rivers and aquifers and pollution is threatening the quality of what remains."
National Resources Defense Council
Health Effects of Chemicals and Toxins Found in Drinking Water
The NSF Contaminant Guide lists many of the common contaminants that can be found in public and private drinking water supplies.
Local Water Reports
Check your water reports!  Though many of our utility companies are doing all they can with the tools they have, there are still dangerous chemicals and by-products in our water.  No public utility can guarantee pure water delivered via the public works system with aging infrastructure and WWI era systems.  There is only so much they can do! 

Everyone needs a water filter!  Stop waiting for someone else to provide your family with clean water when they can't.  And as the reserves of water continue to drop the quality will continue to drop.  Get your filter now, protect your health, save money, and help the environment all at the same time! 
The Phoenix area has Arsenic (causes cancer and circulatory problems), Barium (toxic metal), Nitrates (runoff from fertilizer and leaching from septic tanks), and Picloram (herbicide runoff).
The Atlanta area has Bacteria, Lead, and Cryptosporidium (a parasite that can cause infection and even death) in their water.
North Carolina
The Raliegh area has Simazine (ppb), Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ppb), and Coliform Bacteria including Fecal and/or E.Coli Bacteria in their water.
The east Tennessee area has Barium (a highly toxic metal), Nitrates (runoff from fertilizer and leaching from septic tanks), and Lead (damages the brain and nervous system) in their water.
Virginia has Radium (found in uranium; is highly radioactive), and Barium in their water.  (Radium and Barium information below.)
Toxins in Water

Toxic Metal: The Health Dangers of Barium

Published on March 4, 2013, Last Updated on May 24, 2013

Bottom of Form


Barium is a natural, silvery-white earth metal. Highly reactive with air, barium is not found naturally in pure forms but as a component of ores. When barium is combined with other elements to form barium compounds, it has many applications. Barium carbonate is used as a rat poison, low amounts of barium sulfate may be ingested prior to receiving an x-ray to provide better imaging, and industries such as mining, refining, glass, and coal also utilize barium. Barium exposure, however, can cause serious health problems.

Sources of Barium Exposure

Barium exposure can happen through a number of channels including occupational exposure, groundwater contamination, environmental pollution, cigarette smoke, and even certain medical procedures. In my opinion, industrial use is perhaps of the largest concern due to the potential for massive environmental pollution.

One such example is large, flat-panel televisions. They have become very popular and celebrity-fascination coupled with ever-dropping price points are a likely indicator that their prevalence will continue. Televisions, old and new, contain chemicals and toxic metals. According to UC Davis’ Department of Chemical Engineering, the list of toxins included with most televisions includes arsenic, barium, cadmium, lead, and mercury (and programming that is overwhelmingly void-of-thought). When televisions are improperly disposed of, environmental and groundwater contamination can be an extremely serious problem. In the past 5 years, how many people do you know who have replaced an old television with a new one? We’ve heard that television can be bad for the brain but the potential environmental and public health impact from leaky television disposal really gives that idea a new meaning. [1]

As if you needed another reason to avoid cigarettes, the CDC’s Office of Smoking and Health have reported that cigarette smokers have higher levels of chemicals and toxic metals, including cadmium, lead, and barium. [2]

Barium salts can improve x-ray imaging and certain radiological procedures require that patients drink a barium sulfate beverage; perhaps you or someone you know have been lucky enough to receive a barium enema prior to a colon x-ray? In 2003, it was reported that a contaminated barium solution had been linked to 44 suspected cases of barium toxicity and as many as 9 deaths. Following this tragedy, the CDC recommends patients and clinicians be mindful of barium toxicity after radiologic procedures. [3]

What are the Symptoms of Barium Exposure?

According to Morristown Memorial Hospital in Morristown New Jersey, classic signs of barium toxicity include low blood potassium, cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory failure, gastrointestinal dysfunction, paralysis, muscle twitching, and elevated blood pressure. [4] Severe barium toxicity can lead to kidney damage, respiratory failure, and death. [5] Regular barium exposure has even been fingered as a potential contributor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis. [6]

The Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School reported a case of a man who had ingested fireworks (health tip: do not eat fireworks) and developed barium poisoning as a result. He exhibited reduced mental function, heart problems, and respiratory failure. Following an intervention with a ventilator and potassium supplementation, he improved. [7] Potassium supplementation to counteract barium toxicity has been recognized since at least the early 1930s. [8]

Addressing Barium Exposure Concerns

Barium levels in the body can be measured through bone, blood, feces or urine samples. However, tests cannot determine the duration or level of barium exposure. If you’re concerned with the negative effects of barium or other chemical and toxic metal exposure, I recommend taking a personal inventory of your life to determine your exposure risks. Are you drinking purified water? Are you consuming organic foods that are free of pesticides? Do you live in an area more susceptible to industrial contamination? Are you cleansing your body? These are just a few things to consider. Once you’ve identified the sources of toxins, you can work on removing them from your life.

-Dr. Edward F. Group III, DC, ND, DACBN, DABFM


    1. Lim SR, Schoenung JM. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays. J Hazard Mater. 2010 May 15;177(1-3):251-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.12.025. Epub 2009 Dec 11.
    2. Richter PA, Bishop EE, Wang J, Swahn MH. Tobacco smoke exposure and levels of urinary metals in the U.S. youth and adult population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Jul;6(7):1930-46. doi: 10.3390/ijerph6071930. Epub 2009 Jul 2.
    3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Barium toxicity after exposure to contaminated contrast solution–Goias State, Brazil, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Oct 31;52(43):1047-8.
    4. acobs IA, Taddeo J, Kelly K, Valenziano C. Poisoning as a result of barium styphnate explosion. Am J Ind Med. 2002 Apr;41(4):285-8.
    5. Johnson CH, VanTassell VJ. Acute barium poisoning with respiratory failure and rhabdomyolysis. Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Oct;20(10):1138-42. Review.
    6. Purdey M. Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(5):746-54.
    7. Rhyee SH, Heard K. Acute barium toxicity from ingestion of “snake” fireworks. J Med Toxicol. 2009 Dec;5(4):209-13.
    8. Bowen LN, Subramony SH, Cheng J, Wu SS, Okun MS. Elementary, my dear Dr. Allen: the case of barium toxicity and Pa Ping. Neurology. 2010 May 11;74(19):1546-9. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181e222ee. Review.
Today, tens of millions of Americans drink chromium-tainted tap water.

In 2008, the National Toxicology Program, part of the National Institutes of Health, published groundbreaking research detailing how mice and rats that drank heavy doses of a toxic form of chromium called chromium (VI) developed cancerous tumors. The findings prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to act.

EPA scientists evaluated hundreds of studies and concluded that chromium (VI) likely causes cancer in people who drink it. The agency in 2011 was on the verge of making its scientists’ findings official — a first step toward forming more stringent clean-water rules. But last year it bowed to pressure and announced it was going to wait for new studies being paid for by the chemical industry.

Analysis ...found that villagers who drank chromium-laced water were 85 percent more likely to have stomach cancers than were those who lived in the surrounding province.
Successive cohorts by year of hire at the same chromate plant (1931-1932, 1933-1934, 1935-1937) and the combined cohort (1931-1937) of 332 employees were followed through 1993. A total of 283 deaths (85%) of the total cohort were identified. In the combined cohort (1931-1937), 66 lung cancers were found, constituting 23.3% of all deaths and 64.7% of all cancers. The lung cancer mortality rates are shown over a span of decades, from 15 years to over 55 years, with progressive rise. Observations of lung cancer identified, employees not found, and cancer risk by age at hire are cited. Lung cancer death rates increased by gradient level of exposure to insoluble (trivalent) chromium and to soluble (hexavalent) chromium, with a pattern of increase by total chromium. Age-specific death rates for lung cancer according to the same gradient exposure range for total, insoluble, and soluble chromium are presented. The potential cancer risk extends to all forms of chromium and to total chromium.

What is Cryptosporidiosis?

Cryptosporidiosis ((krip-toh-spore-id-ee-OH-sis), is a diarrheal disease caused by a microscopic parasite, Cryptosporidium, that can live in the intestine of humans and animals and is passed in the stool of an infected person or animal. Both the disease and the parasite are commonly known as "Crypto." The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants. During the past 2 decades, Crypto has become recognized as one of the most common causes of waterborne disease (recreational water and drinking water) in humans in the United States. The parasite is found in every region of the United States and throughout the world.

The 32 page Harvard Report that was released in early 2013 showing again that Flouride lowers IQ in children.
Flouide added to some municipal water supplies is NOT pharmaceutical grade but a toxic by-product of phosphate fertilizer and aluminum production which would normally have to be disposed of in toxic waste dumps and is a human carcinogen and has been proven in multiple studies to cause damage to kidneys, bone cancer, ADHD, low thyroid symptoms (it used to be given in pill form to patients with overactive thyroid), and causes a significant decrease in IQ.  The negative health implications are significantly worse for African American and Hispanic populations.
Flouride and flouridated water must not be used for infants and small children. 
"Because of their sole reliance on liquids for their food intake, infants consuming formula made with fluoridated water have the highest exposure to fluoride, by bodyweight, in the population. Because infant exposure to fluoridated water has been repeatedly found to be a major risk factor for developing dental fluorosis later in life (Marshall 2004; Hong 2006; Levy 2010), a number of dental researchers have recommended that parents of newborns not use fluoridated water when reconstituting formula (Ekstrand 1996; Pendrys 1998; Fomon 2000; Brothwell 2003; Marshall 2004). Even the American Dental Association (ADA), the most ardent institutional proponent of fluoridation, distributed a November 6, 2006 email alert to its members recommending that parents be advised that formula should be made with “low or no-fluoride water.” Unfortunately, the ADA has done little to get this information into the hands of parents. As a result, many parents remain unaware of the fluorosis risk from infant exposure to fluoridated water."
The best documentary on Flouride is The Truth About Flouride with Dr. Paul Connett; Professor Emeritus of Environmental Chemistry, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY; Author, Lecturer, Director Flouride Action Network.
Check out this fantastic video library of important interviews and documentaries featuring notable scientists, physicians and researchers on Flouride's impact on human health.

“Very few Dentists are aware that the fluoride in public water supplies is not a pharmaceutical grade product, it is in fact an industrial waste.  It’s the waste from the Florida Phosphate Industry.  In the 1950’s the Florida Phosphate Industry was being sued by farmers and citizens living near those plants because of the fluoride; it was killing their cattle and destroying their crops.  The Florida Phosphate Industry today is prevented from having to dispose of its industrial affluence in a toxic waste dump, by the device of shipping that (fluoride) in tanker trucks around the country and dumping it in our water supply.”

The Flouride Deception; Christopher Bryson, 2004
EPA Lead Information Page

What are the Health Effects of Lead?
Lead can affect almost every organ and system in your body. Children six years old and younger are most susceptible to the effects of lead.

In children, the main target for lead toxicity is the nervous system. Even very low levels of lead in the blood of children can result in:

  • Permanent damage to the brain and nervous system, leading to behavior and learning problems, lower IQ, and hearing problems
  • Slowed growth
  • Anemia

In rare cases, ingestion of lead can cause seizures, coma and even death.

Pregnant Women
Lead can accumulate in our bodies over time, where it is stored in bones along with calcium. During pregnancy, lead is released from bones as maternal calcium is used to help form the bones of the fetus. This is particularly true if a woman does not have enough dietary calcium. Lead can also be circulated from the mother’s blood stream through the placenta to the fetus. Lead in a pregnant woman’s body can result in serious effects on the pregnancy and her developing fetus, including:

  • Miscarriage
  • Reduced growth of the fetus and premature birth

Find out more about lead's effects on pregnancy:

Lead can also be transmitted through breast milk. Read more on lead exposure in pregnancy and lactating women (PDF) (302 pp, 4.2 MB, About PDF).

Lead is also harmful to other adults. Adults exposed to lead can suffer from:

  • Nervous system effects
  • Cardiovascular effects, in increased blood pressure and incidence of hypertension
  • Decreased kidney function
  • Reproductive problems (in both men and women)

Read more on the health effects of lead at the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).

Drinking Water

Lead can enter drinking water through corrosion of plumbing materials, especially where the water has high acidity or low mineral content that corrodes pipes and fixtures. Homes built before 1986 are more likely to have lead pipes, fixtures and solder. However, new homes are also at risk: even legally "lead-free" plumbing may contain up to eight percent lead. Beginning January 2014, changes to the Safe Drinking Water Act will further reduce the maximum allowable lead content of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures to 0.25 percent. The most common problem is with brass or chrome-plated brass faucets and fixtures with lead solder, from which significant amounts of lead can enter into the water, especially hot water.

Corrosion is a dissolving or wearing away of metal caused by a chemical reaction between water and your plumbing. A number of factors are involved in the extent to which lead enters the water including the chemistry of the water (acidity and alkalinity), the amount of lead it comes into contact with, how long the water stays in the plumbing materials, and the presence of protective scales or coatings inside the plumbing materials.

To address corrosion of lead and copper into drinking water, EPA issued the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The LCR requires corrosion control treatment to prevent lead and copper from contaminating drinking water. Corrosion control treatment means systems must make drinking water less corrosive to the materials it comes into contact with on its way to consumers' taps.


Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. Radium is an almost pure-white alkaline earth metal, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, becoming black in color. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1601 years and decays into radon gas. Because of such instability, radium is luminescent, glowing a faint blue.

Radium, in the form of radium chloride, was discovered by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie in 1898. They extracted the radium compound from uraninite and published the discovery at the French Academy of Sciences five days later. Radium was isolated in its metallic state by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of radium chloride in 1910. Since its discovery, it has given names like radium A and radium C2 to several isotopes of other elements that are decay products of radium-226.

In nature, radium is found in uranium ores in trace amounts as small as a seventh of a gram per ton of uraninite. Radium is not necessary for living organisms, and adverse health effects are likely when it is incorporated into biochemical processes because of its radioactivity and chemical reactivity.

Helpful Links
The multiple award-winning film, FLOW, is a must-see for anyone trying to get the truth about our water.
Watch the multiple award-winning film, TAPPED.  The eye-opening documentary will help you understand the challenges.
Water Related Diseases and Contaminants in Public Water Systems
National Resources Defense Council page on Water
National Resources Defense Council page on Bottled Water and Contaminants
National Resources Defense Council Report: Bottled Water - Pure Drink or Pure Hype; Chapter 4
A great source of information on Flouride, the studies that have been done, and the lack of action to distribute information to the public, please watch the documentary Flouridegate for free on Youtube.
Another great source of information on Flouride is An Inconvenient Tooth.
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